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Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP)

We are currently providing limited information on CBASP. Although this is a promising new form of psychological treatment for chronic depression, we are unable to provide it to patients routinely seen by the service. However, a number of members of the team are involved in training in CBASP in the UK. The role of CBASP in the treatment of chronic depression isn't fully clear but it may have some advantages compared to other evidence-based treatments for depression, particularly when used for chronic (i.e. depression lasting > 2 years) depression.

More information

More information on CBASP can be found at the CBASP website.

Further research


Arnow, B. A., Manber, R., Blasey, C., et al (2003) Therapeutic Reactance as a Predictor of Outcome in the Treatment of Chronic Depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 1025-1035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.6.1025


Arnow, B. A., Steidtmann, D., Blasey, C., et al (2013) The Relationship Between the Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Two Distinct Psychotherapies for Chronic Depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 627-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031530


Brakemeier, E. L., Engel, V., Schramm, E., et al (2011) Feasibility and Outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) for Chronically Depressed Inpatients: A Pilot Study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80, 191-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-9338(11)73868-8


Brakemeier, E. L., Marchner, J., Gutgsell, S., et al (2013) CBASP@home: An Internet-Based Situational Analysis Training as a Maintenance Treatment after Inpatient Therapy for Chronically Depressed Patients. Verhaltenstherapie, 23, 190-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000354814


Hirschfeld, R. M., Dunner, D. L., Keitner, G., et al (2002) Does psychosocial functioning improve independent of depressive symptoms? A comparison of nefazodone, psychotherapy, and their combination. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 123-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01291-4


Keller, M. B., McCullough, J. P., Klein, D. N., et al (2000) A Comparison of Nefazodone, the Cognitive Behavioral-Analysis System of Psychotherapy, and Their Combination for the Treatment of Chronic Depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1462-1470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200005183422001


Klein, D. N., Leon, A. C., Li, C., et al (2011) Social problem solving and depressive symptoms over time: a randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, brief supportive psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 342-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023208


Klein, D. N., Santiago, N. J., Vivian, D., et al (2004) Cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy as a maintenance treatment for chronic depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 681-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.4.681


Klein, D. N., Schwartz, J. E., Santiago, N. J., et al (2003) Therapeutic Alliance in Depression Treatment: Controlling for Prior Change and Patient Characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 997-1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.6.997


Kocsis, J. H., Gelenberg, A. J., Rothbaum, B. O., et al (2009) Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy and Brief Supportive Psychotherapy for Augmentation of Antidepressant Nonresponse in Chronic Depression: The REVAMP Trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 1178-1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.144


Kocsis, J. H., Rush, A. J., Markowitz, J. C., et al (2003) Continuation treatment of chronic depression: a comparison of nefazodone, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 37, 73-87. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15131518


Nemeroff, C. B., Heim, C. M., Thase, M. E., et al (2003) Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100, 14293-14296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2336126100


Ninan, P. T., Rush, A. J., Crits-Christoph, P., et al (2002) Symptomatic and syndromal anxiety in chronic forms of major depression: effect of nefazodone, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 434-441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12025827


PNAS (2005) Correction for Nemeroff et al., Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma, PNAS 2003 100:14293-14296. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 16530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0508675102


Sander, L., Zobel, I., Dykierek, P., et al (2012) Common Factors in the Treatment of Chronic Depression - Comparison of 2 Psychotherapy Methods. Verhaltenstherapie, 22, 228-235. http://dx.doi.org/DOI/10.1159/000345644


Schatzberg, A. F., Rush, A. J., Arnow, B. A., et al (2005) Chronic Depression: Medication (Nefazodone) or Psychotherapy (CBASP) Is Effective When the Other Is Not. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 513-520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.5.513


Schramm, E., Hautzinger, M., Zobel, I., et al (2011) Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus Supportive Psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-11-134


Schramm, E., Zobel, I., Dykierek, P., et al (2011) Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for early-onset chronic depression: a randomized pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 129, 109-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.003


Steidtmann, D., Manber, R., Arnow, B. A., et al (2012) Patient treatment preference as a predictor of response and attrition in treatment for chronic depression. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 896-905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.21977


Swan, J. S. & Hull, A. M. (2007) The cognitive behavioural analysis system of psychotherapy: a new psychotherapy for chronic depression. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 13, 458-469. http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/6/458


Swan, J. S., MacVicar, R., Christmas, D., et al (2014) Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) for chronic depression: Clinical characteristics and six month clinical outcomes in an open case series. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 268-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.024


Thase, M. E., Rush, A. J., Manber, R., et al (2002) Differential effects of nefazodone and cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy on insomnia associated with chronic forms of major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 493-500. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12088160


Vivian, D. & Salwen, J. (2013) Key process issues in Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP): translation of an evidence-based model into clinical practice and training. Psychotherapy, 50, 398-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033054


Wiersma, J. E., van Schaik, D. J., van Oppen, P., et al (2008) Treatment of chronically depressed patients: a multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP) for chronic depressions versus usual secondary care. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-18


Wiersma, J. E., Van Schaik, D. J. F., Hoogendorn, A. W., et al (2014) The Effectiveness of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy for Chronic Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 263-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000360795

National Services Scotland

Advanced Interventions Service
Area 7, Level 6
South Block
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School
Dundee, DD1 9SY. UK.
Tel: +44 (0)1382 496233

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